locative (4)

particle n/a


Proto-Siouan *ro


Hidatsa -ru(k) ‘verbal subordinator, when’ [aru- verbal prefix] J , -ru in: aru- ‘at that time’ J , -ru- in: haruk ‘then, when’ J , -ru- in: hi•ruk ‘when, by the time’ J , -ru in: íaru ‘over there’ J , -rú in: kuarú ‘over there’ H&V , -ru in: ó•ka•ru ‘there’ J , -ru in: šeʔeru ‘then, there’ J


Mandan -ɛro ‘strict locative’ H:433


Proto-Dhegiha *ro

Omaha-Ponca -ðo in: ðéðu ‘here’ JEK

Kanza/Kaw -yó- in: gayó ‘there (unseen), yonder, then, and’ RR , -yó- in: gayóje ‘then, at that time or place’ RR

Osage -thu in: gá-thu , †ðo ‘at that time and place’ LF:47b , -ðo in: shé-thu , †ðo ‘yonder, there where you are’ LF:131a

Quapaw šédo ‘yonder, there’ RR

General comment

Vowel length in some of the MRS forms is not accounted for.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources