noun physical_somatic_body_part

Proto-Siouan-Catawba *pí•

Proto-Siouan *ahpí•

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *apišá

Crow aptá ‘liver’ RG, GG:12, RGG:68

Hidatsa apišá ‘liver’ J

Pre-Mandan *piʔre

Mandan píʔre, píʔ ‘liver’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *hpí

Proto-Dakota *phí

Lakota phí ‘liver’ RTC

Dakota ‘liver’ SRR:421b

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *phí•

Chiwere phí, waphí ‘liver’ GM

Hoocąk píi ‘liver’ KM:2476 , pii

Proto-Dhegiha *hpí

Omaha-Ponca ppí ‘liver’ RTC , tteppí ‘animal liver’ RR

Kanza/Kaw ppí ‘liver’ RR

Osage hpí ‘liver’ LF:128b , p̣i

Quapaw ppi ‘liver’ JOD

Proto-Southeastern *pí•(-yą)


Biloxi pi , †pí ‘the liver, his or her liver’ D&S:245b , píyaⁿ´, piyaⁿ´ , †píyą [A liver cut out of a body would be called pi, not piyaⁿ.] D&S:245b


Tutelo tāpī , †ta•pi• ‘heart’ H


Catawba hipí•yą ‘his liver’ FS

General comment

N.B. Biloxi and Catawba -yą. This and other cases in which the southeastern Siouan languages match Catawba in very precise ways may turn out to be the result of borrowing rather than inheritance. In this instance, however, Mandan -ʔ- in conjunction with the Biloxi and Catawba -y- may indicate that -ʔ- and -y- mark juncture. On the basis of the comment in Dorsey and Swanton we speculate that the final may be a fossilized correlative marker of inalienable possession. The Omaha-Ponca and Tutelo forms are compounded with ‘bison’ and ‘deer, ruminant’ respectively.

Other languages

  • Proto Muskogean *lópi ‘liver, brain, marrow’
Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources