juniper, red cedar

noun plant


Proto-Siouan *xąte

Pre-Mandan *oxtą•re

Mandan óxtąre ~ óxtą ‘cedar’ H:134 , oxtą́ ‘pine tree?’ RTC , oxtą́• ‘sage?’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *xą́te

Proto-Dakota *xąté

Lakota xąté ‘cedar’ RTC

Dakota ḣaŋté , †xąté ‘cedar’ SRR:162a


Omaha-Ponca áxoⁿdepa , †xąde ‘wrist guard’ F&LF:225

Kanza/Kaw xą́ǰe ‘cedar’ RR

Osage xoⁿ´dse , †xą́ce ‘red cedar’ LF:219a

Quapaw xątté ‘cedar’ RR , xǫttéhi ‘cedar’ JOD

General comment

The Omaha-Ponca term refers to a packet strapped to the sacred (cedar) pole: a- ‘on, upon’, xąde ‘cedar’, -pa ‘locative (?)’. (Analysis from JEK).

The Biloxi term for ‘cedar’ is borrowed from Western Muskogean. Quapaw stress has shifted; it must have been initial earlier in order for the *t to geminate.

The Mandan root appears to exhibit an irregular syncope. Cedar has sacred properties among all or most of the Siouan-speaking peoples.

Other languages

  • JEK: Iroquoian, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga ohnéhtaʔ, Huron xahⁿdéhtaʔ, Wyandot andeta, Tuscarora uhtéhneh, Mithun (1984, 270).
Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources