interrogative (3)

enclitic n/a


Proto-Siouan *-wa


Hidatsa -wa in: tapé•wa ‘who could it be?’ J , -wa in: tapí•ʔawa ‘who are they?’ J , -wa in: to•še•wa ‘why is it’

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *-wa


Lakota -wa in: túwa ‘who’ EB:503 , -wa in: túwa tawa ‘whose?’ EB:503


Chiwere wa- ‘who?’ JGT:4601 , wa- in: wayé ‘nobody’ JGT:4603 , wa- ‘somebody else’ JGT:4604 , wa- in: wayére skúñye ‘someone’ JGT:4605 , wa- ‘anyone’ HAM, JGT:4606 , wa- in: wayére sun ‘whose?’ JGT:4608 , wa- , wa- in: wayére^i , wa- , wa- in: wayéreksu , wa- , wa- in: wayéretawe

Proto-Dhegiha *-wa

Omaha-Ponca áⁿ-wa(-) ‘which?; where?’ [interrogative of place where; prefixed or preposed to article pronouns (classifiers)]

Kanza/Kaw -wa- in: hówa ‘where is the X shaped obj.?’ [+ positional art.] RR , hówageǰi ‘where, to what places’

Osage -wa- ‘where did you buy it?’ LF:67b , -wa- in: hó-wa-ge stsi-wiⁿa (?) ‘nowhere’ LF:67b , -wa- ‘where; in what place’ LF:67b , -wa- in: hó-wa-ge thiⁿ-ge ‘where; which one’ LF:67b , -wa- ‘where’ LF:68b , -wa- in: hó-wa-iⁿ-ge , -wa- , -wa- in: hó-wa-the , -wa- , -wa- in: hú-wa-ge



Biloxi -wá in: tcuwá , †-wá ‘in what place? where is it?’ D&S:267b , -wa , †-wá ‘what? Who?’ D&S:204a , -wa in: káwa , †-wá ‘what?’ D&S:204a , -wa- , †-wá ‘what?’ D&S:204a , -wa- in: kawakĕ´ , †-wá ‘something or other’ D&S:204a , -wa- , †-wá , -wa- in: káwat , †-wá , -wa- , †-wá , -wa- in: kawayáⁿ , †-wá

General comment

In Hidatsa tapí•ʔawa ‘who are they?’, note position of plural -ʔa-, suggesting separability of -wa. All DH forms in which the -wa follows a rounded vowel are in danger of being epenthetic; alternatively, an earlier *hawa- might have rounded to howa-. Cf. ‘demonstrative, locative (2)’.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources