hot weather



Proto-Siouan *wąšte

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *mąšte


Lakota mašté ‘warm weather’ RTC

Stoney mastá ‘it’s warm, sunny’ PAS

Sioux Valley mašté PAS


Chiwere mą́sǰe ‘warm, summer’ JGT:41, W:236a

Proto-Dhegiha *mąšté

Omaha-Ponca moⁿshte , †mąšté ‘sunshine’ MAS:167

Kanza/Kaw mǫščé ‘hot, summer, Democrat’ RR

Osage moⁿ´stse , †mą́šce ‘hot weather, hot day’ LF:102a

Quapaw mošté ‘hot’ RR



Tutelo maste, mústee , †maste• ‘spring’ H

General comment

The accentual differences between Tutelo and Chiwere on the one hand and most of the other languages on the other could be explained if the proto-form were bimorphemic, nominalizing ‘absolutive*wa- and *ąšte the root. The second mora accentuation rule would then assign accent on the first syllable of those languages which maintain vowel length more or less faithfully, but accent would shift to the second syllable in those languages which have tended to lose length. Unfortunately there is no independent evidence for *ąšte at present. Additionally, the Tutelo fricative does not match as expected.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources