noun physical_spatial_mountaneous


Proto-Siouan *-hé•

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *(a)hé


Lakota pahá ‘hill’ RTC


Chiwere ahé ‘hill’ GM, JGT:52 , óhe ‘hill, mound’ JGT:52

Proto-Dhegiha *-ahé

Omaha-Ponca p̣ahé , †ppahé ‘hill’ LF:125a

Kanza/Kaw bahéšta ‘hill’ RR

Osage p̣ahé , †hpahé ‘(archaic) hill, mountain’ LF:125a

Proto-Southeastern *he•ki

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo *éki

Biloxi ĕktaⁿní, ĕktaⁿnihíxye , †ektąni ‘hills, peaks’ D&S:191b

Ofo éki , †éki ‘hill, cliff’ D&S:323 , ékitoⁿ , †éki ‘mountain’


Tutelo ohēki , †ohe•ki H

General comment

Chiwere suggests *hpa + ahe are compounded here, and OVS confirms it.

Initial h- is normally lost in Biloxi, Ofo. The Kanza/Kaw form seems to be the equivalent of the Lakota form, while the remainder of the DH languages seem to have reanalyzed the initial syllable as *hpa ‘tip’. Even so, the exact relationship with the attested forms in the remaining subgroups is opaque.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources