verb perceptual_tactile


Proto-Siouan *tké or: *tiké

Pre-Mandan *tke

Mandan tkéʔš ‘he’s heavy’ H:253 , tké•k ‘it was heavy (Sub.)’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *tke

Proto-Dakota *tké

Lakota tké ‘heavy’ RTC

Dakota tké ‘heavy’ SRR:471b

Stoney kta PAS


Kanza/Kaw ábütta ‘hold down’ JOD

Quapaw bittátʔe ‘press to death’ JOD


Proto-Biloxi-Ofo *tké or: *tiké

Biloxi tĭké, tĭkeyĕ´ , †tiké ‘weigh something’ D&S:276a

Ofo nạkhé , †nəkhé ‘heavy’ D&S:326b

General comment

OVS suggests a vowel between t_k. The diacritics seem to indicate epenthesis of a very short or neutral V in OVS, but it could also be etymological. The DH consonants are regular, but the final vowel should be e rather than a. Thus, it is not certain that these forms are cognate. The Ofo form suggests that the *t in these forms may have originated as a resonant *r which became *t as the first member of a voiceless cluster. RR: tk would normally become *hk > kh in Ofo, so na- is most likely a prefix here.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources