heat/cold, instrumental



Proto-Siouan aRá•-

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *ará-

Crow alá- RG

Hidatsa ará- J


Mandan rá-

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *Rá•-

Proto-Dakota *na-

Lakota na-; nama-, nani-, na-

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *Rá•-

Chiwere dá•-

Hoocąk taa-, táa-, taará-, taa-´ , taa-, taa-, taara-, taa-

Proto-Dhegiha *Ra-

Omaha-Ponca na-

Kanza/Kaw dá•-

Osage †tá-

Quapaw tá-

Proto-Southeastern *ará-

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo *ará-

Biloxi adá-

Ofo ata-, bata-, ata-


Tutelo ala- in: alapōk , †ala- ‘ashes’ H , na- in: inausĭ´ñga , †ala- ‘burn’ H


Catawba ‘blaze’ KS, G , wi•rą́ ‘burn’ KS , tαp ‘freeze’ KS

General comment

There seems to have been a good deal of morphological restructuring here. In DH, at least, this instrumental has fused with several verbs to form new stems that may themselves take other instrumental prefixes from the inner or outer sets, e.g., Kanza/Kaw gadá•sage ‘dry in the wind’ ( < sagé ‘hardened, stiffened’); nądá•ską ‘thaw by walking on, as a path’; nądá•kkaǰe ‘heat up from running, as tires or a person’. Unlike the other instrumental prefixes, which transitivize, the ‘heat/cold’ prefix forms statives which can only be transitivized and inflected for person through causative derivations. Note different Catawba etymologies may help explain *R in MVS. < *t ~ r in stem conflation.

Other languages

  • Cf. PUA #62a (Miller) *na, *nai ‘burn’ Cf. ‘burn’
Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources