hard > strong, ripe

verb perceptual_tactile


Proto-Siouan *suta (?)

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *súta

Proto-Dakota *sutá

Lakota sutá ‘hard, strong’ RTC , -súta, na- ‘trample hard’ EB:358 , -súta, pa- ‘make stiff and hard by kneading, as dough’ EB:434 , -súta, wo- ‘make hard by punching or ramming; to make hard by raining on’ EB:608 , -súta, ya- ‘make firm with the mouth, to establish’ EB:627 , -súta, yu- ‘make firm’ EB:650

Dakota sutá ‘hard, strong’ SRR:439b

Stoney suda ~ ðuda PAS

Proto-Dhegiha *súta

Kanza/Kaw wasǘda ‘hard, firm, as corn’ RR

Osage çída , †sǘta ‘ripe corn’ LF:30a



Tutelo soti , †soti ‘strong’ H

General comment

The Tutelo form may not be cognate: both vowels fail to correspond to those seen elsewhere. Vowel length is indeterminate here since none of the languages that preserve it faithfully is represented.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources