grass (3)

noun plant


Proto-Siouan *xą́•he

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *xahe

Crow baaxée ‘cockleburr’ RG, RGG:11

Hidatsa wa•xaxa• ‘cockleburr’ [< xáxa ‘rough, scratch’] J , ma•xaxa•


Mandan xą́h, xąhé ‘hay, grass’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley xą•-

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *xą́•wį

Chiwere xámi, xáme ‘hay, grass’ [Ioway] JGT:94

Hoocąk xąąwį́ ‘hay, grass’ KM:3864, LWR:38 , xąąwį

General comment

Cf. ‘grass (4)’. In more than one instance roots with final (or suffixed) -he have lost the h and gained an epenthetic glide between the vowels left in hiatus. If the root vowel is rounded, the glide is usually w. The replacement in MVS appears to be w here even after the low, unrounded vowel. Quapaw xą́įke ‘frost’, although possibly cognate, is most likely part of the ‘frost’ set, q.v. It is probably xefrost (2)’ + a-on, locative’ + (n)įkelie, be lying, positional’ with subsequent nasal spread to a- and the expected collapse of e+ą to ą.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources