grasp > hold, take

verb physical_contact


Proto-Siouan *rú•sE

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *-hcE < **-ccE < ***-cVcE (redup.)

Crow tchi, dú- ‘grab, get, take’ RG, GG:44, RGG:26 , tchi, dá- ‘grab with teeth; fight (as do dogs)’ RG, GG:42, RGG:53

Hidatsa -hcE, nú- ‘take, pick up’ J , -hcE, ná- ‘bite’ J


Mandan -še, ru- ‘grasp, pick up, fetch, pump water’ H:225 , -še, ra- ‘hold in the teeth’ H:226 , írušeʔš ‘he caught it’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *rú•zE

Proto-Dakota *yúzA

Lakota yúzA ‘grasp, hold, take, pick up’ RTC , yusyúzA ‘grasp, hold, take, pick up (a multitude)’ RTC

Dakota yúza ‘take hold of, grasp, hold, catch, take a wife’ SRR:647b

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *rú•ze

Chiwere lúðe GM , ðú•ðe RR

Hoocąk rúus ‘take, get, obtain’ KM:2755 , ruus

Proto-Dhegiha *rüzé

Omaha-Ponca †ðizé ‘take’

Kanza/Kaw yüzé ‘get, take, accept’ RR

Osage thuçé , †ðüzé ‘take, receive, accept’ LF:154a

Quapaw ídizáza ‘hold, grasp sth., for holding as pliers’ RR , dizé ‘get, take, receive’ RR

Proto-Southeastern *(a)rú•si

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo *(a)rú•si

Biloxi dusí , †dusí ‘bite, as a dog does; to be in the habit of biting’ D&S:253a , dusé, áduse , †dusí D&S:169a

Ofo ạtū´fi, tū´fi , †ətú•fi ‘buy, sell, trade’ , tū´fkopi , †tú•fkopi ‘pinch’


Tutelo lóca, lúca , †lúsa ‘take, steal’ JOD

General comment

Initial *ru here appears to be part of the root and not the instrumental prefix of the same shape. The Ofo forms fit well, as f is the expected reflex of *s. The Tutelo also fits, since JOD’s Tutelo always substitutes š for s of the other workers. Tutelo has no independent phoneme š.

Perhaps JOD’s primarily Cayuga-speaking informant only had the one fricative.

Tutelo normally generalizes the -a form of *-E also. Only Ofo shows an initial vowel. The ə is irregular here (unless it is a locative prefix), as it normally signals glottalization was present on the following stop. Crow, Hidatsa, Mandan, and Biloxi have reanalyzed the form as instrumentally prefixed and extended it by using another of the prefixes. Accent and Quapaw reduplication argue that the same reanalysis occurred in Proto-Dhegiha.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources