general deictic (1)

particle n/a


Proto-Siouan *i-


Hidatsa í- in: íahkua ‘over there’ [(+action verb)] J , í- in: íahkuaru ‘right there’ H&V , í- in: íahkuaše• ‘by way of over there’ J , í- in: íahkuka(•) ‘over there’ J , í- in: íahkuha• ‘by way of over there’ J , í- in: íahkuha•k ‘(motion) from over there’ J , í- in: íahkuha•še• ‘by way of over there’ J , í- in: íahta ‘towards that place’ J , í- in: íaru ‘over there’ J , í- in: íaruha• ‘by way of over there’ J , í- in: íaruha•k ‘over there’ J , í- in: íaruše• ‘by way of over there’ J , í- in: íaša•hak ‘(I did it) like this’ J , í- in: íaše• ‘by way of over there’ J , í- in: íaxa• ‘over that way; a little further’ J , í- in: ícki ‘to fit; approach perfection’ J , í- in: íckha• ‘accurate(ly); (to go) straight to’ J , í•- in: í•hiri ‘very’ H&V


Mandan íʔorą ‘independent pronoun’ H:88 , íʔorak ‘independent pronoun’ H:88 , íšak ‘independent pronoun’ H:94 , į́xa ‘to be alone’ H:98

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *i-


Lakota í- in: íye ‘he, she, it’ EB:254 , i- in: iyepi ‘they’ EB:254 , i- in: iyécexci ‘just like’ EB:254 , i- in: iyéha ‘instead, rather he (she)’ EB:254 , i- in: iyéhą ‘at the time appointed’ EB:254 , i- in: iyehątu ‘at the time; now, it being the time now’ EB:255 , i- in: iyékaeš ‘even he’ EB:255 , i- in: iyéna ‘as many (as), so many’ EB:255 , i- in: iyénaka ‘so many as’ EB:255 , í- in: íhecegla ‘at once’ EB:216 , í- in: íheciya ‘in that way from’ EB:216 , í- in: íhehąyą ‘so far from’ EB:216 , i- in: ihéktab, mihektab ‘behind, after one’ EB:216 , i- in: ihéktabya, íhektabya, ihéktapa ‘behind’ EB:216 , í- in: íkahą ‘so far from’ EB:219 , í- in: íkahąyą ‘so far from’ EB:219 , í- in: íkakhi ‘on that side of’ EB:219 , í- in: íkakhiya ‘on that side of’ EB:219 , i- in: ilázata, milazata ‘back from, behind something, by my side’ EB:223 , i- in: ilázatą ‘from the side of, perhaps’ EB:223 , í- in: íleciya ‘on this side of’ EB:223 , í- in: ílehą ‘so far off’ EB:224 , í- in: ílehąyą, alehąyąg ‘so far off’ EB:224 , í- in: ítab ‘soon after; quickly’ EB:237 , i- in: itáhena ‘on this side of, i.e. in time or place’ EB:237 , í- in: ítohą ‘How far from ? How long from ?’ EB:241 , í- in: ítohąyą ‘a little ways off’ EB:241 , í- in: ítona ‘Of how many? Which number ?’ EB:242 , í- in: ítonaka ‘Of how many ?’ EB:242


Chiwere i ‘yonder’ JGT:1553 , i- ‘here; now’ JGT:1627, LWR , i- in: igínanga ‘right here (in it)’ JGT:1630 , í- ‘thus; this/ that way’ JGT:1646 , í- in: ígiúwa ‘on this/ that side’ JGT:1648 , i- ‘this; that way’ JGT:1650 , i- in: igún ‘thus; that’s the way it is’ JGT:1660 , i- ‘like that; be thus’ JGT:1661 , i- in: igúntun ‘near without touching’ JGT:1839 , i- ‘alone’ JGT:1896 , i- in: igún^un ‘alone’ JGT:1902 , i- ‘a/ an; one’ JGT:1976 , i- in: ihgásgun ‘one; some; the same’ JGT:1978 , i- ‘never; ever’ JGT:1979 , i- in: ihgé; hgé; ihgá ‘that one over there’ JGT:18 , i- , i- in: irú^asgi/ irúathki , i- , i- in: ishná/ ishtán , i- , i- in: istán/ ishtán , i- , i- in: iyán , i- , i- in: iyángki , i- , i- in: iyánhan , -i- , -i- in: ga^igi



Biloxi i- ‘at one side or end’ D&S:252a , i- in: isaⁿ´hiⁿ ‘under the leaves’ D&S:200b , i- ‘inside, within, in’ D&S:200b , i- in: -itka in: háawitka ‘over yonder’ D&S:201a , i- , i- in: itkáyaⁿ , í- , í- in: íyaⁿ


Catawba i- ‘it’s true’ KS:206 , i- in: inərɛ

General comment

There is good evidence for a 3rd person prefix with the form *i- in Siouan relic morphology. That form may be related to this more general element. The Hidatsa ia- forms perhaps reflect earlier *-iha.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources