verb perceptual


Proto-Siouan *-hpi

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *-hpi

Proto-Dakota *-phi

Lakota ípi ‘full, satisfied’ EB:232a , wí_phi ‘full of food, satisfied’ EB:589a , k̇iphí ‘hold, contain; carry as a vessel, cart, etc.; be large enough for’ EB:309b

Dakota í_pi ‘full, satisfied’ SRR:204b , kipí , †wí_pi ‘full of food, satisfied’ SRR:578a


Chiwere gipí , †giphí ‘good for, good to, it’s okay by’ JGT:20

Proto-Dhegiha *okíhpi

Omaha-Ponca ugípi , †ogíppi

Kanza/Kaw ogí•ppi ‘full, filled’ RR

Osage ugíp̣i , †okíhpi LF:170a

Quapaw okíppi JOD



Biloxi kinĕ´pi, kĭnepí , †kinepi ‘be glad, satisfied’ D&S:245b

General comment

Cf. ‘good (1)’. The root with various prefixes takes on the sense of ‘good or sufficient for, full, satisfied’. Biloxi n preceding oral e indicates an earlier Cr cluster that has simplified.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources