friend (1)

noun social



Proto-Mississipi-Valley *hkota, *hkoRa, *hkora

Proto-Dakota *khota, *khoRa

Lakota la_khóta ‘Lakota’ RTC , khóla ‘friend’ EB:315a

Dakota kodá ‘the particular friend of a Dakota man’ SRR:293b

Sioux Valley khotá-ye PAS


Hoocąk hičakóro ‘friend’ KM:825 , hicakoro

Proto-Dhegiha *hkóra, *hkóRa

Omaha-Ponca endakutha , †-kkoða ‘archaic, friend’ MRG

Kanza/Kaw kkóya ‘friend’ RR

Osage ḳútha , †hkóða ‘friend’ LF:90b , hkówa , †hkóða ‘friend’ RR

Quapaw kkóda ‘friend’ RR , kkóta ‘friend’ JOD

General comment

Cf. Mobilian trade jargon: mogula, mukula ‘friend’, Crawford p. 85. It appears that look-alike forms have diffused widely, cf. also Choctaw “kana” ‘friend’ (Swanton and Byington 222b), ikhana ‘know’ (RR) and Algonquian niihkaana ‘my friend’, *n-iiθ-kan-a ‘brother, fellow’ (Callander 1962:121). The Mobilian form shows that Siouan languages contributed to the diffusion stock. There are three different intervocalic consonants represented here, and we have no idea how this situation arose.

Other languages

  • Yuchi: kʔati LB (kʔa ‘together’ + ti ‘name’-Ballards analysis)
  • Muskogean: Choctaw, Swanton and Byington 222b kana ‘friend, inalienable’. ikhana ‘know’.
  • Algonquian: *niihkaana ‘my friend’ Charles Callander 1962:121. Probably better *n-iiθ-kan-a ‘brother, fellow, etc.’ Shawnee should be checked.
  • Mobilian trade jargon: mogula, mukula ‘friend’, Crawford p. 85. These clearly relate to Siouan, possibly Quapaw.
Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources