foot, instrumental


Proto-Siouan-Catawba *ra•-

Proto-Siouan *rą•-

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *ara-

Crow ala-, baa-, dáa, ala- RG

Hidatsa ara-, waʔa-, ráʔa-, ara- J


Mandan ra-

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *rą•-

Proto-Dakota *ną-

Lakota na-, nawa-, naya-, na-

Dakota na-, nawa-, naya-, na-

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *ną•-

Chiwere ną- ~ ną•- [when slow, 1Act haną́-] RR

Hoocąk nąą-, ną́ą-, ?, nąą-´ , nąą-

Proto-Dhegiha *ną-

Omaha-Ponca ną-, aną́- ðaną́-, ną-´

Kanza/Kaw ną-, aną́-, yaną́- ną-´

Osage ną-, aną́-, ðaną́-, ną-´

Quapaw ną-, aną́-, daną́-, ną-´

Proto-Southeastern *rą- ~ *ra-


Biloxi na-, oⁿna-, ina-, na- , †na- D&S

Ofo la-, bala-, tcala-, la- , †la- D&S


Tutelo nañ- , †ną- ‘by foot’ H


Catawba da•- ‘action by foot’ [mutating inner root] FS

General comment

The prefix is an inner instrumental in every language but Dakotan.

Perhaps Dakota is conservative and all the others have given in to the strong analogical pressure to regularize pronoun and instrumental prefix order. More likely the majority of languages preserve the original position and the instrumental has been reanalysed in Dakotan, perhaps because Dakota has a number of outer instrumentals which might form a model for the reanalysis. Catawba indicates that the instrumental is quite old and was inner in that language, the pronominal prefixes fusing with the initial consonant.

We cannot account for the initial vowel and the ʔ in Hidatsa, though the latter might be related to the Ofo l where n is expected (l frequently indicating r in association with a laryngeal articulation). Except for Ofo (a single example) and Mandan, which may be influenced by Hidatsa, nasalization is general in Siouan but lacking in Catawba. Length is attested only in some subgroups.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources