upstream, upwind




Proto-Mississipi-Valley *mą•hą


Lakota omáha ‘Omaha Indian’ EB:394a

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *mą•hą

Chiwere iromáhą ‘upstream’ LWR:12 , umáha ‘upstream’ JGT:268

Hoocąk mąąhą́ ‘go against the medium’ KM:1958 , mąąhą ‘at the upper part of a river’ KM:1036 , hiromą́hąįǰá , hiromąhąija

Proto-Dhegiha *-mąhą

Omaha-Ponca umoⁿhoⁿ , †omą́hą ‘against the current’

Kanza/Kaw kkímąhą ‘against the wind or current’

Osage ḳímoⁿhoⁿ , †hkímąhą ‘face the wind, against the wind’ LF:86b

Quapaw kímąhą ‘Quapaw upriver village name’ JOD , ímaha

General comment

This term is opposed to káxpasouth > downstream’, q.v., from which the name of the Quapaws, okáxpa is formed. Both terms seem to be restricted to MVS.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources