verb social_war


Proto-Siouan *-hki•-

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *wakía < *wakíhe

Crow bačía ‘fight’ GG:24

Hidatsa wakía ‘make war’ J , makía

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *hkí•-

Proto-Dakota *khíza

Lakota khíza ‘fight’ RTC

Dakota kíza , †khíza ‘fight, quarrel’ SRR:293

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *khí•za

Chiwere khíða RR

Hoocąk kiizá KM:1842 , kiza

Proto-Dhegiha *-hki-Ra

Omaha-Ponca kikína , †kkína ‘fighting’ MAS:77 , ukíte , †okkítte ‘fight’ MAS:77

Osage áḳitha , †áhkiða ‘to contend as in a fight’ LF:12a

Quapaw ákkida ‘attack in return’ JOD



Ofo kīthĕ´, ákithĕ, kithéhe , †ki•thé ‘fight’ D&S:325b, JSS


Catawba wi•tkərų́ ‘fight’ [KS]

General comment

This root suffers greatly from homophony with the reciprocal, with which it is often combined. The variety of final syllables suggests frequent renewal. Cf. ‘soldier’ for additional possibilities. The Ofo may be from *kih-te < *kih-Re and thus parallel to the DH forms.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources