father (1) (referential)

noun social_kin


Proto-Siouan *-á•ti


Hidatsa átĕ ‘father’ WM:155 , átuṡ ‘father’ HWM , á•tu ‘father (ref.)’ J

Pre-Mandan *atE

Mandan wáʔtE; rá•ts ‘my father; our father’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *áti

Proto-Dakota *até

Lakota até ‘father’ RTC

Assiniboine até PAS

Stoney adé PAS

Sioux Valley até PAS

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *-ą́te

Chiwere ą́ǰe W:235b, GM

Hoocąk hiʔą́č KM:808 , hi’ąc

Proto-Dhegiha *iráti

Omaha-Ponca iðádi RTC

Kanza/Kaw įdáǰi, iyáǰe RR

Osage ithádsi , †iðáci ‘his or her father’ LF:78b

Quapaw įtátte RR , idátte JOD

Proto-Southeastern *-á•ti

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo *ati

Biloxi adiyaⁿ´, ádiyaⁿ , †adiyą́ D&S:170a

Ofo athí ‘father, his father’ D&S:322a


Tutelo yāt; eāti N, H , áti JOD

General comment

This noun is dependent in DH; the glide between the obligatory prefix and the initial a of the root was reinterpreted as part of the root.

Aspiration in Ofo was conditioned by stress-shift. In Kanza/Kaw and Quapaw it appears that a merger of the referential and vocative terms has occurred. Hidatsa -u forms, which are so far unexplained, seem to have replaced the older term recorded in WM; final -ṡ = -š is the definite article.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources