fall > lie down

verb physical_motion


Proto-Siouan *xapÉ

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *xap-

Crow xapí ‘lie down, fall’ RG

Hidatsa xápi ‘lie down, recline’ [rka] J , xphe, ara- ‘kick sth. off of sth.’ J , xphe, na- ‘knock down from a high place’ J , xphe, nú- ‘take down’ J , xphe, pá- ‘push off, knock down, knock off’ J

Pre-Mandan *-xpe-

Mandan wakípxeʔš ‘I fell in’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *xpa-

Proto-Dakota *xpA

Lakota xpáya ‘lie down’ RTC , xpahą́ ‘thrown down’ RTC , oxpA´ ‘drop’ RTC , xpá, na- ‘be kicked off or out.’ EB:815 , xpa, oká- ‘make fall into by striking’ EB:383 , xpáxpa, ka- ‘strike and make pieces fly off, as from wood or ice’ EB:275 , xpá, wa- ‘cut off anything and let it fall’ EB:519 , xpá, wo- ‘make fall by shooting, to shoot down, as a bird on the wing’ EB:598 , xpá, ya- ‘pull something with the mouth so as to make it come down, as a dog jumping at a piece of beef. to throw anything down with’ EB:620 , xpá, yu- ‘pull something, so as to make it fall; to loosen the bow string after use; to throw down e.g. one’s load, to shake off’ EB:639 , xpa, yuáka- ‘cover, conceal’ EB:633 , xpa, apá- ‘throw down on’ EB:88

Dakota ḣpa ‘thrown down’ SRR:166b


Chiwere oxwą́ñe ‘fall down’ JOD

Proto-Dhegiha *xpare

Omaha-Ponca uxpathe , †oxpáðe MAS:74

Kanza/Kaw oxpáye ‘fall off’ RR , obáxpaye ‘push off, shove sth. off’ RR , obúxpaye ‘push somebody off (old fused causative?)’ RR , ogáxpaye ‘knock somebody off of a horse,perch, etc.’ RR , oną́xpaye ‘kick something off its platform.’ RR , obóxpaye ‘shoot down, shoot and cause to fall’ RR , odáxpaye ‘burn down, cause to fall by burning’ RR , oyúxpaye ‘fall from the hand, let, to lose.’ RR

Osage uxpáthe , †oxpáðe ‘grope, feel around with hands in dark’ LF:181b

Quapaw oxpáde ‘fall from a height’ JOD , obáxpade ‘push off and cause to fall’ RR , obíxpade ‘fall, cause by pressure/weight’ RR , odíxpade ‘pull off and cause to fall’ RR , okáxpade ‘knock off, cause to fall off’ RR , oną́xpade ‘kick something down’ RR , opóxpade ‘shoot down’ RR



Biloxi xapká ‘flat, low’ D&S:225a

General comment

Hidatsa, Lakota, Chiwere, and DH show forms with a relic, fused causative which is no longer conjugated as a causative. Mandan wą́xpenine’ (one laid/hangs down?) may also belong here, although it is a rather peculiar form, being exceptional with regard to the normal Mandan constraint against clusters with p as second element.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources