noun physical_somatic_body_part


Proto-Siouan *í•te

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *i•tÉ

Crow iisá ‘face’ RG, GG:79, RGG:76 , í•se L:237

Hidatsa i•tá ‘face’ J , íte, itĕ ‘face’ WM:97

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *i•té

Proto-Dakota *ité

Lakota ité ‘face’ RTC

Sioux Valley ité PAS


Chiwere į́•ǰe ‘face’ RR , ʔį́ǰe ‘face’ RR

Proto-Dhegiha *įté

Omaha-Ponca įdé ‘face’ RTC

Kanza/Kaw i•ǰé, iǰé RR

Osage iⁿdsé , †įcé LF:75a



Biloxi itĕ´, te , †ité ‘face, forehead’ D&S:200b


Catawba ne•n ‘face’ FS

General comment

Cf. ‘forehead (1)’. These roots are distinct in Dakota, but may have merged in other languages. Swanton was aware of this distinction, but found no difference in Biloxi. Matthews ignored the distinction in his reconstruction.

Lack of aspiration suggests earlier accent on leftmost syllable. Chiwere length and accent and Kanza/Kaw length support this analysis. It is a very odd accentual pattern however. Chiwere and DH sporadic nasalization are unexplained. Proto-Siouan may represent *i-íte here, i.e. a possessive prefix before a vowel-initial form. No glide is inserted, perhaps because the vowels were identical. This supposition would account for accent and vowel length. Cf. also Catawba įtu•ʔeye’ (Kanza/Kaw).

Other languages

  • Yuchi: da LB
Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources