end, point, tip (1)

noun physical_spatial


Proto-Siouan *-tpE

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *uhpÉ

Crow uhpá RG, GG:58

Hidatsa ihpú ‘tip’ J

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *itpE

Proto-Dakota *į́tpA

Lakota į́kpa ‘end’ RTC , wahį́kpe ‘arrow’ RTC

Dakota †į́kpa ~ †į́tpa ‘end, small end, source’ SRR:201a


Chiwere udwáxe ‘tip, end, source’ JGT:260

Proto-Dhegiha *ihtá-

Kanza/Kaw bazé ittáxe ‘nipples of breast’ RR

Osage iṭáxe , †ihtáxe ‘tip, top’ LF:78b

General comment

DH metathesis is regular. Hidatsa shows rightward vowel exchange. The u of Chiwere and Proto-Crow-Hidatsa, the oral i of Proto-Dhegiha, Dakota nasalization and accent on the first vowel -- together these suggest that this form is bimorphemic. Biloxi pŭt, pŭdiyaⁿ´ ‘tip, end’ (DS-250a), if cognate, represents a metathesis. x in the MVS forms may in fact be γ.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources