do, make

verb physical_action


Proto-Siouan *ʔų́•

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *ʔų́

Proto-Dakota *ʔų́

Lakota ʔų́ ‘do’ RTC

Sioux Valley (ʔ)ų PAS

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere ʔų́•

Chiwere ʔų́ ‘do; aux.’ RR

Hoocąk ų́ų ‘do; make; be; wear, be dressed in’ KM:3154 , ųų

Proto-Dhegiha *ʔǫ́

Omaha-Ponca ʔǫ RR

Kanza/Kaw ʔǫ RR

Osage ʔǫ RR

Quapaw ʔǫ RR

Proto-Southeastern *(h)ų́•


Biloxi oⁿ, oⁿni, hoⁿni , †(h)ǫ-nį ‘do, make, use; wear’ D&S:240b


Tutelo aōma, aōñ , †a-ǫ• ‘do, make’ H , ioⁿ´¢a < oⁿ , †a-ǫ• ‘wear’ JOD , ono•i , †a-ǫ• H:1883

Saponi Honis ‘stockings’ F


Catawba ʔǫči ‘do’ KS

General comment

This is one of the oldest and most widely used auxiliaries in Siouan.

When unaccented, as is often the case when suffixed to other verb roots, it sometimes has the allomorph -(ʔ)ą. It has a distinctive conjugation in many Siouan languages. In DH generally the conjugation runs: 1Act ; 2Act žǫ; 3Act ʔǫ-; 12Act ǫkǫ́-. In Dakota 12Act is ųkʔų́pi. Tutelo 1Act íwaoⁿ´¢a; 2Act íyaoⁿ¢a.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources