demonstrative > that, this

particle n/a

Proto-Siouan-Catawba *he

Proto-Siouan *he ~ *he•

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *he ~ *he•

Crow h"éa(n) ‘if’ L:99 , hɛm ‘hence’ L:99 , heehtaa ‘but’ GG:63 , héela ‘among’ GG:65 , helak ‘change of actor’ GG:63 , héelapko ‘meanwhile’ GG:63 , hɛrac"én ‘therefore (because of this)’ L:99 , hé•ra’keʻ•ta, hé•ra’kaʻre ‘on the side of’ L:99 , hé•rək’’then’ ‘and then, to his surprise’ L:99 , heeleelak ‘through’ GG:63 , hɛ´•rɛta ‘through the camp’ L:99 , acé•reta ‘within’ L:90 , hé•rin ‘in spite of this’ L:99 , héelitdoolak GG:63

Hidatsa hé- in: héʔeri ‘that one’ H&V , he- in: heʔeruk ‘then’ J , he- in: heʔeša ‘that, thus, like that’ J , -he- in: mí•rahe•ri, ní•rahe•ri ‘I (emph), you (emph)’ J , -he ‘this (suff. to noun)’ H&V , -he in: hihé ‘now’

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *he ~ *he•

Proto-Dakota *he

Lakota he ‘that’ [same as hecel] EB:169 , he e ‘that is’ [this, along with lée, includes the substantive and demonstrative pronoun] EB:136 , hé- in: héce ‘thus, so, in this way; hence, therefore’ [cf. kʔų he, kʔų hena.] EB:169 , hé- in: héci ‘in or at that place, there or away from the speaker’ EB:170 , hé- in: hée ‘that is it, it is he’ EB:171 , hé- in: hékta ‘that behind, what is passed or last, as applied to time and space’ EB:172 , he- in: hena ‘those there’ EB:169 , he- in: hetą́, hetąhą ‘from that place, from that time; therefore, on that account’ EB:173 , hé- in: hétkiya ‘towards that place’ EB:174 , hé- in: hétu ‘at that place, there’ EB:174 , -hé- in: thahéna ‘on this side, in ref. to time and place’ EB:473 , -he in: tóhe ‘his place, his camp; his office or position’ EB:494 , -he in: ųhé, ųhéna ‘that’ EB:506

Dakota he ‘that’ [cf. hą ~ he]

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *he•

Chiwere hé- ‘also, in addition, and besides’ JGT:1344 , hé- in: hédan / hédare ‘and then’ JGT:1353 , hé- , hé- in: héjare / hédare

Hoocąk hee- in: heegų́ ‘so, thus’ KM:468 , he- in: hegų ‘thus, be thus’ KM:791 , hee- in: heesgé = žeesgé , he- in: heesge; žeesge = žee + heesge

Proto-Southeastern *he

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo *he

Biloxi he , †he ‘that, there’ D&S:196a , he , †he ‘that’ D&S:196b , yaⁿ hé , †he ‘and (and too?)’ D&S:289b , he- in: hewá , †he ‘to that place, that way’ D&S:196a , hé- in: héyaⁿ , †he ‘there, in that place’ D&S:196a , -hé in: yahé , †he ‘this’ D&S:287b


Tutelo he in: héwa , †he ‘that’ H


Catawba he ‘this’ [seems always to be suffixed and attrib.] J, KS:224

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources