demonstrative (2)

particle n/a


Proto-Siouan *ʔa


Crow a- in: akú(-) ‘beyond’ J

Hidatsa a- in: aku(-) ‘relativizing prefix; agentive’ [verbal prefix] J , a- in: aku- ‘beyond’ [nominal prefix] J , a- in: aru- ‘at that time’ J , a- in: aru- ‘nominalizer; partitive’ J



Lakota a- in: aétulakeci ‘in a little while’ [cf. ‘beyond’] EB:56 , a- in: áetulake el ‘after a little while; rather at that time; very soon’ EB:56 , á- in: ákho- ‘across’ J


Chiwere a- ‘and then it is’ JGT:22 , a- in: adáre ‘that; and then; he/ she/ it is’ JGT:175 , a- ‘close by; near’ JGT:221 , a- in: aré ‘more; in addition; beyond measure’ JGT:870 , a- ‘near without touching’ JGT:1839 , a- in: asgí/ áshgi/ áski ‘this one right here’ JGT:923 , -a ‘nearby: speak of s.t. as near, when really is distant’ DOR, JGT:3001 , -a in: étax^a , -a- , -a- in: irú^asgi/ irúathki , -a- , -a- in: gánaha^a , , in: ra^ásge/ ra^ásgi; ra^áshke/ raáshki

Hoocąk -a in: ga’a ‘that (near him)’ KM:305 , a in: ga’a ‘near’ KM:15 , aa- in: aašgé , aa- in: aašge


Omaha-Ponca á- in: ádą ‘therefore’ [nominative direct singular postpositive article, pronoun, relative, copula] JEK , -a- in: ttiadi; tti- ‘in the tent, house’ [nominative direct plural postpositive article, pronoun, relative, copula] JEK , -a- in: ttiatta, tti- ‘to, towards the tent, house’ JEK , a- in: †akhá ‘the’ , a-ká ‘the’ , a- in: a-má

Kanza/Kaw a- in: abá ‘the an/mv sg or pl’ RR , a- in: akhá ‘the, sg. or coll., subj.’ RR, JOD , á- in: ámǫtta, ómǫtta ‘other side, to be’ MR, RR , á- in: áška ‘near, nearby’ RR

Osage -a- ‘these’ LF:143a , -a- in: thé-a-ba ‘who is it?’ LF:40a , -a , -a in: e-béa


Catawba a- ‘far away’ KS:98 , a- in: atkę́ ‘he’ KS:125 , a- , a- in: atα´’ , a- in: αn , †a- ‘then’ KS:226 , a- in: αné , †a- ‘so; that certainly is so’ KS:206 , a- in: αné kúdyirɛ , †a-

General comment

Evidence for the initial glottal stop appears in Chiwere, Hoocąk only.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources