demonstrative (1)

particle n/a


Proto-Siouan *ha


Hidatsa há- in: háwa ‘then, again, there, and’ H&V , há- in: háwahi ‘thereupon, and then’ H&V , ha- in: harukhí, haruk hí• ‘therefore; then’ H&V, J

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *-ha


Chiwere há- in: háʔe ‘that one, invisible’ GM , há- ‘that (it) is/ and it is’ JGT:1259 , há- in: há aré / haré ‘then it is’ JGT:1260 , há- ‘the/ it is the’ JGT:2537 , há- in: hádare ‘that one: it is that one’ JGT:2540 , -há ‘it is he/she’ JGT:2542 , -há in: nahá/ nanhá ‘this is’ JGT:2022 , -há- ‘from’ JGT:3206, LWR , -há- in: nahá^e , -há- , -há- in: naháre , -há , -há in: jehá , -há- , -há- in: roháda; roháta

Proto-Dhegiha *-ha

Omaha-Ponca ðégiha

Kanza/Kaw yegáha

Osage ðekáha


Catawba ha- in: det hacerɛ ‘I’m here’ KS:128 , ha- in: yē hare ‘this man here’ KS:128 , ha- ‘nobody lives here (lit. person not here)’ KS:53 , ha- in: dübä´ harihiré

General comment

Many instances of suffixial ha/hą in Siouan languages appear to be an adverbializer, a different morpheme. Also cf. indefinite/interrogative ha.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources