defecate, dung (2)



Proto-Siouan *(wa-)į́-ki-ye ~ -re

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *(wa-)į-k-ye

Proto-Dakota *ų́_kče

Lakota ų́kče ‘fart’ RTC , ųkčépagmigma ‘tumble bug’ RTC

Sioux Valley ų́_kče PAS

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *-kre

Chiwere mį́gre ‘manure’ JDH

Hoocąk wakeré ‘feces’ KM:3354 , wakere

Proto-Dhegiha *įkré

Omaha-Ponca įgðe

Kanza/Kaw iléha ‘anus’ RR

Osage iⁿgthé , †įlé ‘dung, excrement’ LF:75b

Quapaw įkdé ‘dung, manure’ JOD



Ofo *ą́kįde ‘dung, manure’ D&S:322b , áⁿkindĕ

General comment

The DH and Chiwere/Hoocąk forms suggest that Dakota ų- here may be an irregular reflex of *wa + į-. The syllable structure here has collapsed in different ways and at different times in the several languages. Accent placement should, by the second syllable rule, fall on but it has been shifted variously in accordance with the alterations in syllable structure.

Cf. ‘defecate, dung (1)’.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources