darkness (2)

noun perceptual_visual


Proto-Siouan *kpa•

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *-hpa• < *-Cpa•

Crow áhpaa ‘evening’ GG:4, RGG:36

Hidatsa óhpa• ‘evening’ J

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *kpá-zE

Proto-Dakota *kpázA ~ *tpázA

Lakota kpáza, ókpaza ‘dark, darkness’ RTC

Dakota tpáza, ótpaza ‘dark’ SRR:480a , ókpaza WM:44a


Hoocąk hokawás ‘be dark, darkness’ KM:1364 , hokawas ‘get dark, darken’ KM:1365 , hokawazí , hokawas hii

Proto-Dhegiha *hpáze

Omaha-Ponca páçe , †ppáze ‘evening’ MAS:70

Kanza/Kaw ppáze ‘evening’ RR

Osage p̣áçe , †hpáze ‘evening, close of the day’ LF:124a

Quapaw ppáze ‘evening’ RR

General comment

The Hidatsa and OVS forms (under *sih ‘darkness’) show clearly that this is historically a compound. There is nearly always a prefix, locative a- or o-, which may be used with either part of the compound separately, as Hidatsa and Tutelo show most clearly.

The initial stop cluster found in MVS may also resolve itself into more than one morpheme, as the precise source of the k portion of the cluster is unclear. Analysis of this set is far from complete. Chiwere has substituted hą• ‘night’ for kpa in this word.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources