cutting instrumental

instrumental prefix physical_contact_deformation



Proto-Mississipi-Valley *Wa-

Proto-Dakota *Wa-

Lakota wa- [wawa-, waya-, wa-, waʔŭ(k)-]

Dakota ba- [bawa-, etc.]


Chiwere ba- GM

Hoocąk mąą-, mąą́-, mąąrá-, mąą- WL, PV

Proto-Dhegiha *Wá-

Omaha-Ponca má- [máa-, máða-, má-]

Kanza/Kaw bá- [báa-, báya-, bá-] RR

Osage pá- [páa-, páða- pá-] RR

Quapaw pa- [páa, páda-, pá-] JOD, RR

General comment

This is an outer instrumental in MVS. It seems to be quite restricted and shows the peculiar set of W initials. Elsewhere *W seems to be derived from an earlier *w(V)wV´ sequence in which the first V has been lost by initial syllable syncope. That is, W seems usually to come from secondary geminate ww. Here we lack evidence for the sequence, but the analogous instrumental in Crow and Hidatsa shows at least that ‘by cutting’ is probably morphemically complex at least. We cannot be certain that the form was Proto-Siouan. The Hoocąk form is irregular and shows contamination from ‘knife, chert’, q.v.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources