verb perceptual_auditory



Proto-Mississipi-Valley *wrų́ɣE

Proto-Dakota *mnų́ɣA

Lakota mnuɣA, wayá- ‘grind, as in eating parched corn’ EB:564a, EJ , mnúmnuɣA, ya- ‘crunch, crush, grind, champ, or make noise with the teeth, as in eating; pepper’ EB:624a, EJ , númnuɣA, yu- ‘make a noise, as in handling corn; To make a noise, as in handling corn or crepe paper’ EB:644, EJ

Dakota mnúġa ‘crunch, as a horse does in eating corn’ SRR:318b


Chiwere brúnxe , †brų́xe ‘make a crunching sound’ JGT:126

Proto-Dhegiha *brǫ́ɣe

Kanza/Kaw büblǫ́ɣe ‘crunching sound, make by pressure on ice’ JOD , nąblǫ́ɣe ‘crunch something’ JOD , nąblą́ɣe ‘crunch something’ JOD , nąblǫ́blǫɣe ‘make crunching sounds, kick’ JOD, MR, RR , yablǫ́ɣe ‘crunch in two, bite in two’ RR , yablǫ́blǫɣe ‘crunch while eating, as in eating ice.’ RR

Quapaw dabnábnaɣe ‘crunch food when eating’ RR

General comment

Ordinarily stems of this general shape would descend from a Proto-Siouan stem of the probable shape *wa-(r)ų́xE where wa- is ‘indef. obj.’, and in which the parenthetical r could be either organic or epenthetic historically.

Lack of cognates outside of MVS makes such a reconstruction too insecure here however.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources