verb natural_force_weather


Proto-Siouan *sarį́-he

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *ciría < *ciríhe

Crow čilía ‘cold (weather)’ RG, GG:38, RGG:6

Hidatsa ciría ‘cold’ J


Mandan šįrį́hoʔš ‘it’s cold out’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *snį́(-hi)

Proto-Dakota *sní

Lakota sní ‘be cold out, cold to touch’ RTC , -sni, aká- ‘extinguish on, as fire’ EB:69b , -sni, iyá- ‘become still, as a noise ceasing; to recover from, as from anger or sickness; to die down, as a fire with only coals left’ EB:252b , -sni, íčiča- ‘make cool, as hot coffee by pouring it to and fro from one cup to another’ EB:204a , -sní, na- ‘put out a fire with the foot’ EB:357b , osní ‘be cold out’ EJ , -sní, wo- ‘put out, as rain does fire’ EB:608a , -sní, ya- ‘blow, cool by blowing’ EB:627a , -sní, yu- ‘put out, extinguish e.g. a fire, to turn out a light, lamp; to make cold.’ EB:650a , -sni, yuá- ‘quiet down, soothen e.g. a person excited or sad’ EB:633b

Sioux Valley sní PAS

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *snį́

Chiwere ró•θrį RR

Hoocąk sįnį́, sįnįhí ‘cool,’ KM:2859 , sįnį, sįnįhi KM:79 , -sį́nį, boo- , boosįnį

Proto-Dhegiha *snį́

Omaha-Ponca osnį́ ‘cold’ RR

Kanza/Kaw snį́, hnį́ ‘cold’ RR , hníčče ‘be cold as a person is’ RR , hníhį ‘be cold, as an object is cold to the touch’ RR

Osage hníṭse , †hnį́hce ‘cold’ LF:63a

Quapaw snį́ ‘cold’ RR , -snísni, ka- ‘autumn, blows cold on and off’ RR

Proto-Southeastern *sanį́•


Biloxi snihixtí ‘be cold’ D&S:256b , snixtédi ‘feel cold’ , sní dusí ‘catch cold’


Tutelo sanī , †sanį• ‘cold’ H


Catawba čįʔ KS , čiʔ FGS , čihi FGS , čihα FGS

General comment

Crow/Hidatsa and Tutelo either preserve or innovate an initial syllable vowel.

Note however that they are different. The Tutelo version is the lectio difficilior as it cannot be explained by assimilation. If the Tutelo vowel is organic, a Proto-Siouan reconstruction *sarį́•-he would be justified. Ofo oⁿtcehí ‘it is cold’ (DS-328a) is most likely non-cognate, though note the resemblance to Catawba. The Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *-he is to be compared with Biloxi -hi-, but not with the hi/hį of MVS. Reflexes of Proto-Siouan -he are not preserved in MVS except where they are protected. So the -hi in these instances must be thought of as an MVS innovation. It may be some sort of partial reduplication or, at least in Quapaw, a separate morpheme, -hi ‘very’.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources