verb physical_somatic


Proto-Siouan *-tkÉ


Crow daxčí ‘choke’ [< daC- ‘by force’] RG

Hidatsa ráhkahka• ‘gulp, gobble down food’ J , náhkahka•


Mandan -tké, ka- ‘choke on something’ H:104, H:351

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *-tkÉ

Proto-Dakota *katkA´

Lakota -tkA´, ka- ‘choke or be choked, as in eating; to stick in the throat’ EB:293a, EJ

Dakota katká ‘choke, be choked’ SRR:270b


Osage gaṭse , †kahce ‘choked’ LF:205b , wáṭse , †wá•hce ‘choke, strangle’ LF:205b

General comment

This root most frequently occurs with the ‘striking’ instrumental.

Metathesis and assimilation *tk > *kt > ht/tt in DH is regular. Most initial stop clusters in Siouan can be seen to have lost a vowel. In this instance the vowel is not preserved in any language. t in this context can come from virtually any dental stop, or *r or a Proto-Siouan syllable beginning with any of those consonants and any intervening vowel (which would normally disappear by initial syllable syncope). It is not clear that the Crow/Hidatsa forms belong. Crow suggests an earlier -xki/E, not tki/E, while Hidatsa suggests and earlier -Cka•

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources