sleep

verb psychosomatic

Proto-Siouan-Catawba *hiwų́• (?)

Proto-Siouan *hiyą́•(-re)

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *hiráwE, *ihá•wE

Crow hiráwi ~ iháwi ‘sleep’ GG:48, GG:73

Hidatsa hiráwi ~ ihá•wi ‘sleep’ J

Pre-Mandan *hrąʔ-

Mandan hąrą́ʔroʔš ‘he’s sleeping’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *yą́•

Proto-Dakota *čhą

Lakota čhą ‘day, sleep’ [used in counting days (sleeps) as in OM, BI] EB:115b

Dakota ćaŋ , †čhą ‘a night or day’ SRR:86a

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *yą•

Chiwere žą́(•) ~ ɣyą́• ~ yą́• ‘sleep’ [Iowa] RR , ‘sleep’ [Otoe] RR

Hoocąk nąą ‘sleep’ KM:2105 , nąą

Proto-Dhegiha *žą́

Omaha-Ponca žą́ ‘sleep’ RR

Kanza/Kaw žą́ ‘sleep’ RR

Osage žą́ ‘sleep’ RR

Quapaw žą́ ‘sleep’ RR

Proto-Southeastern *(hi-)yą́•(-ri)

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo *yą́•(ri) (?)

Biloxi yaⁿ´ni , †yą́ni ‘sleep’ D&S:290b , yaⁿ´te , †yą́te ‘be sleepy’ D&S:290b , yaⁿ , †yą́ ‘a sleep, a day’ D&S:290b

Ofo tcạ́ftu , †čə́ftu ‘go to bed, lie down’ D&S:329a , batcā´ftu , †bačá•ftu ‘I go to bed, lie down’ D&S:329a, JSS

Proto-Tutelo-Saponi

Tutelo hīy’ñ; hianta, hiantkapewa , †hiyą ‘sleep’ N, H , híyaⁿ , †hiyą ‘sleep’ DSF

Proto-Catawba

Catawba himų́re ~ imų ‘sleep’ [numerous other transcriptions] SS , cf. hí•mbare ‘sleep’

General comment

Cf. ‘dream’. Crow and Hidatsa have conflated the roots for ‘sleep’ and ‘dream’. Third person conjugated forms reflect ‘sleep’, while first and second person conjugated forms are based on ‘dream’. ‘sleep*hiyą has been extended with the *-wE < *-wre of ‘dream*ihą́wre. In Ofo is very frequently the reflex of earlier . Evidently vowel centralization occurred before denasalization. Chiwere once again has y where r is expected. Chiwere y is a reflex of earlier ž and should only come from Proto-Siouan . This suggests either that the merger of *y and *r in Chiwere was not as complete as we had thought or that these terms are borrowings from DH. We have a number of examples of this. Catawba may also be cognate as *-wų- dissimilates in Siouan. The correspondence is not regular however, as the dissimilation product is normally r, not y.

Details Language Word Source