verb psychic_cognition


Proto-Siouan *hąwre, *ihą́wre ‘dream, dream of s.t.’

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *hiráwE, *ihá•wE

Crow bihámne, bihámme ‘sleep’ L:61 , hiráwi ~ iháwi ‘sleep’ GG:48, GG:73

Hidatsa hiráwi ~ -ihá•wi ‘sleep’ J

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *(i-)hą́•wre

Proto-Dakota *(i-)hąwrA

Lakota hąblé RTC , iháƞbla EB:216a , ihą́ble EJ

Dakota haŋmdé , †hąmde ‘to fast and dream’ SRR:124a , wíhaŋmna , †wíhąmną ‘dream’ WM:54a

Stoney hą́mną ‘dream, have vision(s)’ PAS

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *(i-)hą́Re

Chiwere hą́ǰe GM

Hoocąk hąąté ‘dream’ KM:772 , hąąte ‘dream about’ KM:862 , hihąté , hihąte

Proto-Dhegiha *hąbre

Omaha-Ponca hoⁿbthe , †hąbðe ‘dream’ MAS:62

Kanza/Kaw hąblé ‘dream’ MR, RR

Osage hóⁿbthe , †(i-)hą́bre ‘dream’ LF:65a , ihóⁿbthe , †(i-)hą́bre

Quapaw hǫ́bde ‘dream’ JOD



Ofo ạbaiyáⁿte ‘a dream’ D&S:319


Catawba cf. hí•mbare ‘sleep’

General comment

Cf. ‘sleep’. Crow and Hidatsa have conflated the roots for ‘sleep’ and ‘dream’. Third person conjugated forms reflect ‘sleep’, while first and second person conjugated forms are based on ‘dream’. ‘sleep*hiyą has been extended with the *-wE < *-wre of ‘dream*ihą́wre. The Ofo form superficially resembles other OVS reflexes for ‘sleep’, q.v., but Proto-Siouan *y > čh normally in Ofo, so the y here is most likely epenthetic.

h- is very frequently lost in both Biloxi and Ofo, so Ofo -i(y)ą́te most closely matches MVS/MRS ‘dream’, the Ofo reflex of Proto-Siouansleep’ should be *(h)ičhąti, but this word is not found in Ofo. The phonological and semantic similarities between Proto-Siouan *(i-)hą́•wre ‘dream of X’; and Proto-Siouan *hiyą́•(-re)sleep’ are so great that the two terms may, in fact, be doublets from a single Proto-Siouan stem that would be cognate with Catawba hí•mbaresleep’. On the of ‘dream’ perhaps cf. *hą ‘night’.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources