shake (3)

verb physical_motion


Proto-Siouan *-tahe


Crow tattáahi ‘stagger, trip, stumble’ [redupl] GG:57


Mandan -táhoʔš, pa- ‘he shakes something’ H:243

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *-táta

Proto-Dakota *-tata

Lakota -táta, ka- ‘shake off, e.g. dust from a blanket; perhaps to brush off with the hand or with a brush’ EB:293 , -táta, na- ‘shake off, e.g. dust from one’s feet or blanket’ EB:360 , -táta, yu- ‘shake off, e.g. dust from a garment; to scrape or brush off with the hand’ EB:654

Dakota -táta, ka- ‘shake off, brush off’ SRR:270a , kata´ta


Osage bamoⁿ´dada , †pamą́tata ‘rub the hands with joy; satisfaction’ LF:22a


Proto-Biloxi-Ofo *tahi

Biloxi dŭktahí , †-tahi, dak- ‘shake, as a blanket’ D&S:269a

Ofo tạtā´hi , †tatá•hi ‘shake, tremble’ D&S:329b, JSS

General comment

Cf. ‘knock (2)’. ‘strike (6)’ It is curious that the Ofo reduplication form shows no aspiration. In fact, this stem should show reflexes of aspiration up and down the line. Cases like this show that, however predictable aspiration appears to be, even in Ofo it was not phonologically conditioned in its entirety. In all languages but Ofo this root seems to require an instrumental prefix. We are not sure aspiration worked in that environment, at least in Lakota. In MVS, the root seems to occur only in reduplicated form.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources