sand (1)

noun physical_substance

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *hpú•sahe

Pre-Mandan

Mandan púšak ‘coarse sand’ H:160

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *hpu•zá(h-ke)

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere

Chiwere phu•θá-khe ‘sand’ RTC, RR

Hoocąk pųųzáke ‘sand’ KM:2515 , pųųzake

Proto-Dhegiha *hpü•zá

Omaha-Ponca ppi•zá ‘sand’ JOD, RR

Kanza/Kaw ppü•zá ‘sand’ RR

Osage p̣içá , †hpüzá ‘sand, silt’ LF:128b

Quapaw ppíza ‘sand’ RR, JOD

General comment

Cf. ‘dry (3)’, ‘sand (2)’ for possible related ablaut series. Chiwere suggests that this was a *-he final root. The Hoocąk and Chiwere forms present some phonological problems. The unexpectedly nasal vowels are a common feature of this subgroup and, while irregular, are no surprise. The voicing distinction in the fricative is much less common.

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