gamble

verb social_game

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *hkiʔų

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa

Hidatsa wakíʔ ‘compete, gamble’ J , makíʔi

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *hkiʔų́ > *kʔų́

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *khiʔų́

Chiwere kĩ’ĩ , †kįʔį ‘gamble, try’ LWR , khį́į , †kįʔį GM

Hoocąk kiiʔų́, wa_kiʔų́ ‘gamble’ KM:1810 , kii’ų, waki’ų

Proto-Dhegiha *kʔǫ́

Omaha-Ponca wakoⁿ ? MAS:84

Kanza/Kaw i_kʔǫ́ ~ ikʔwǫ ‘gamble, contend in a race’ JOD

Osage ḳ’oⁿ , †kʔǫ́ ‘gamble, bet’ LF:88b

Quapaw kʔą́he ‘lay something down, lay out’ JOD

General comment

The conjugation is prefixed to ki- in Hoocąk and DH. Lakota ʔų́yą (1Act waʔų́bla, 12Act ųkʔų́yąpi) ‘lose’ may be derivationally related, but does not appear to be directly cognate. The construction appears to be a reciprocal in Hidatsa at least, and perhaps in Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere. The Quapaw form may simply be a homophone ‘lay’, or, ‘gamble’ may somehow be related to ‘lay’.

Details Language Word Source