verb physical_somatic_posture


Proto-Siouan *ʔų́pE


Hidatsa ákipi ‘harnessed; a team horse’ J , ákiphe• ‘to lay sth. over or across sth.’ J , makípihe• , †wakípihe• ‘cross, crisscross (logs, one’s arms, etc.)’ J

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *ʔų́pe

Proto-Dakota *-ʔųpa

Lakota aʔų́pa ‘lay, place wood on fire’ EB:97a, EB:85b

Dakota a-oŋ´ ‘lay, place wood on fire’ SRR:40b , a-oŋ´-pa ‘lay, place wood on fire’ SRR:40b

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *-tʔųpe

Chiwere atʔą́we ‘lay’ LWR:2

Hoocąk -tʔųp ‘place sth. long crosswise, lengthwise’ , t’ųųp



Biloxi iⁿpí, hiⁿpí , †(h)įpí ‘put down large horizontal object’ D&S:202b


Catawba pi• ‘lie, be lying’ KS

General comment

Cf. ‘jump over’ for similar consonant set, also ‘fly (1)’. Cf. also ‘lay down, lay on’. Hidatsa ákipi ‘harnessed; a team horse’ is from synchronic aki- ‘across’ + pE ‘lying’. Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *-t- < epenthetic *-r- in first and second person forms, extended to third. In Biloxi h often is found as a reflex of Proto-Siouan autonomous . The Biloxi first vowel is probably due to assimilation, as is (historically) the first i in the Hidatsa forms. Cf. ‘copulate (1)’ The DH stem (k)-ǫ́helay’ may be related to this set.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources