firm (2)

verb perceptual_tactile

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *-tʔį́za

Proto-Dakota *-tʔį́za

Lakota tʔį́za ‘hard, stiff, firm, strong’ RTC , patʔį́za ‘stiffen by kneading’ EB:436b , tʔįza, ayú- ‘squeeze’ EB:108 , tʔį́za, ka- ‘pound tight, make tight or firm’ EB:294 , tʔį́za, na- ‘press hard with the foot’ EB:361 , tʔį́za, pa- ‘make stiff by kneading, as in mixing up bread, to press down tight’ EB:436 , tʔį́za, wo- ‘tighten make tight by punching; to blow up tight e.g. a bladder’ EB:611 , tʔį́za, ya- ‘make firm with the mouth, to affirm’ EB:630

Dakota ṭíŋza , †tʔį́za ‘stiff, firm, hard, brave’ SRR:483b , paṭíŋza , †patʔį́za ‘make stiff by kneading, press down tight’ SRR:416a

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere

Hoocąk tʔís, nąą- ‘be swollen; swell up’ KM:2246 , nąąt’is ‘shrink’ KM:2247 , tʔíx, nąą- , nąąt’ix

Proto-Dhegiha

Omaha-Ponca †agátʔįze ‘blows thick’ , †ttatʔį́ɣe ‘green scum on water’

General comment

Probably related by sound symbolism to ‘firm (1)’.

Details Language Word Source