die

verb psychosomatic

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *tʔé•(-re)

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *tÉE

Crow šÉE RG, GG:55

Hidatsa tE•´ ‘die, be dead’ J

Pre-Mandan

Mandan té•roʔš ‘it’s dead’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *tʔé

Proto-Dakota *tʔA´

Lakota tʔá ‘die’ [- ablaut when reduplicated] RTC , tʔA, iglú- ‘kill one’s self’ EB:214b, EJ , tʔA´, ka- ‘kill or stun by striking; to die by hitting an object’ EB:294a, EJ , tʔA´, na- ‘kill by kicking’ EB:361a, EJ , tʔA´, pa- ‘kill by pressure, as by lying on’ EB:436b, EJ , tʔA´, wa- ‘kill with a knife’ EB:555a, EJ , tʔA´, wo- ‘kill by punching or shooting; to strike so as to endanger life, to stun’ EB:611b, EJ , tʔA´, ya- ‘bite to death’ EB:630a, EJ , tʔA´, yu- ‘choke to death.’ EB:655a, EJ , tʔátʔa, pa- ‘be numb; to be asleep, as a limb’ EB:436b, EJ , tʔátʔa, yu- ‘be numb’ EB:655a

Dakota ṭa , †tʔa ‘die’ WM:49a

Stoney tʔA´ PAS

Sioux Valley tʔA´ PAS

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *tʔe

Chiwere čʔe ‘die’ RR

Hoocąk tʔée ‘hurt by shooting, blowing, great force’ [syncopating conjunction] KM:3027, JEK , t’ee ‘hurt with knife’ KM:94 , tʔé, boo- ‘hurt with the foot’ KM:2032 , boot’e ‘hurt’ KM:2245 , tʔé, mąą- ‘hurt by pressure or pushing’ KM:2738, WL:8.9 , mąąt’e ‘eclipse; new moon’ KM:3495, WL:19.2 , tʔé, nąą- KM:3682 , nąąt’e , tʔé, ru- , rut’e , tʔé, wa- , wat’e , tʔe, wiirá- , wiirat’e

Proto-Dhegiha *tʔe

Omaha-Ponca tʔé ‘die’ RTC, RR

Kanza/Kaw čʔé ‘die’ RR , bücʔé ‘numb, dead from sitting on, as a limb’ JOD, RR , gacʔé kill, ‘strike down, to stun’ RR , bacʔéya ‘kill by rooting up’ MR, RR , nącʔéye ‘trample to death’ MR, RR

Osage cʔe ‘die’ RR

Quapaw tʔé ‘die’ RR , tʔe, tá- ‘withered from heat or cold’ RR , battátʔe ‘kill, cause to wither’ RR , bittátʔe ‘press to death’ RR , dittátʔe ‘uproot a plant, pull up’ RR , kattátʔe ‘kill, cut off, cause to wither’ RR , nąttátʔe ‘trample to death’ RR , páttatʔe ‘wither, cause by cutting’ RR , póttatʔe ‘kill vegetation by punching’ RR , táttatʔe ‘wither from exposure to heat’ RR

Proto-Southeastern *tʔe•(-ri)

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo *tʔe(-ri)

Biloxi ṭe, ṭédi , †té-di D&S:273b

Ofo ạthĕ´, athé, thĕ, txe , †əthé ‘die’ D&S:330b

Proto-Tutelo-Saponi

Tutelo tē, tēolāha , †te• H

General comment

In OVS the set consisting Ofo #Ch : Biloxi #C is from proto-OVS *Ch < Proto-Siouan *hC, while the set consisting of Ofo #əCh : Biloxi is from Proto-Siouan *Cʔ. There is, of course, no direct evidence within OVS for the glottalization; the aspirated and glottal sets are simply distinct. Ofo initial ə- ~ a- is unsupported in MRS and elsewhere in OVS and so is not reconstructible. Further investigation is desirable in cases like these.

The lone vowel in Ofo seems to have something to do with glottalization. The theory that #Cʔ > #ạCh in Ofo holds at least for ‘die’, ‘give’ and ‘dig > scratch’ thus far. Hoocąk preserves length in compounds (contrast ‘dig > scratch’). Cf. ‘wilt’ for a derived form.

Other languages

  • W169 *t-qé; M-58:112 *tʔéhi
  • PUA #131 *te ‘die’; #133 *ʔe ‘die’ Miller
Details Language Word Source