boil, cook

verb physical_condition_change


Proto-Siouan *(o-)hą́

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *-úa < *-úha

Crow bulúa ‘boiling’ [caus.] RG, GG:34 , bulúahche RGG:103

Hidatsa wírua ‘boiling, bubbling’ J , mirua ‘make fire’ J , úa

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *ohą́

Proto-Dakota *ohą́

Lakota ohą́ ‘boil’ RTC

Dakota ohą́pi ‘boiled’ SRR

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *ohą́

Chiwere u•hą́ RR

Hoocąk hohą́ MM:264 , hohą

Proto-Dhegiha *ohą́

Omaha-Ponca óhą ‘broil, cook’ JOD, MAS:284

Kanza/Kaw ohą́ ‘boiling’ RR

Osage úhoⁿ , †óhą ‘boil, stew, cook’ LF:170b

Quapaw ohą́ RR

Proto-Southeastern *-hą́, *-ha•


Biloxi haoⁿ, paspahoⁿ´, paspánḳoⁿ´, paspá hayoⁿ´ , †haą ‘cook, fry, cook flat’ D&S:195a


Tutelo hīehā , †hi•eha• H

General comment

In Biloxi the portion of the words written -oⁿ is most likely the verb ‘do, make’. Lack of nasality in Biloxi and Tutelo makes it a purely MVS feature, perhaps the result of compounding with ‘do, make’. Thus a Proto-Siouan *oha-ʔų is a possibility here. Since Crow and Hidatsa do not distinguish nasality in either vowels or consonants, its status in Proto-Siouan is indeterminate. The Crow/Hidatsa forms meaning ‘boiling’ have compounded ua with ‘water’.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources