noun physical_artefact_vehicle

Proto-Siouan-Catawba *Wát, *WáHt (?)

Proto-Siouan *Wá•te (?)

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *wá•hte• (?)

Crow báashee ‘boat’ GG:21, RGG:99

Hidatsa wá•hti ‘boat, car’ J , má•hti


Mandan wáta ‘shell’ H:278

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *Wá•te

Proto-Dakota *wáta

Lakota wáta RTC

Dakota wáta SRR

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *Wá•te

Chiwere bá•ǰe RR

Hoocąk wáač KM:3182 , waac

Proto-Dhegiha *Waté

Omaha-Ponca mądé JOD

Kanza/Kaw baǰé ‘boat’ RR

Osage badsé , †pacé ‘any kind of boat’ LF:20a

Quapaw mątté ‘boat’ CS, RR , mąté ‘boat’ JOD


Proto-Biloxi-Ofo *-há•ti

Biloxi nahaṭí, nahádi, naháti, nahád , †naháti D&S:231b

Ofo iyā´ti , †iyá•ti ‘boat’ D&S:325a


Woccon Watt , †wat ‘boat’

General comment

There are many phonological problems in this set: (1) Nasal vowels in DH are not accounted for. (2) The hati of the SE languages is very difficult to relate to central Siouan. (3) Quapaw nasality is unexpected, since the reflex of *W should be b (unlike Omaha-Ponca where the normal reflex is m).

(4) DH generally shows an irregular shift in accent. (5) Hidatsa preaspiration (not attested in Crow) is difficult to account for even from hati since h should not have been lost in Crow. (6) Mandan should have -E rather than -a.

Although it may be possible to justify a Proto-Siouan reconstruction for ‘boat’, we believe that in reality this word is equally most likely a diffused form, ultimately an early borrowing or adaptation of a reflex of proto-Algonquian *meʔteko:ši ‘dug-out canoe’ (Aubin-1231). As in ‘bow’, q.v., only approximately the first two syllables are ever borrowed into Siouan, probably at a variety of different times and from different Algonquian languages or dialects.

In this set, what appears as a reflex of *W in several languages may stem either from interaction between m and ʔ, or from the fact that Algonquian phonemic m was treated differently in Siouan from the native nasalized w’s. Most Siouan *W come from *w-w sequences that arise secondarily due to syncope of a medial vowel.

Other languages

  • *meʔteko:ši ‘dug-out canoe’ Aubin-1231
Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources