artichoke, edible root

noun plant_part


Proto-Siouan *hpą́•xi


Mandan pą́•xE ‘wild potato’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *hpą́•ɣi

Proto-Dakota *phąɣí

Lakota phąɣí ‘Jerusalem artichoke’ RTC

Dakota paŋġi , †phąɣí ‘artichoke’ WM:9b

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *phą́•ɣi

Chiwere phą́xe ‘Indian turnip’ RR

Hoocąk pąąɣí ‘ground cherry’ KM:2443 , pąąǧi

Proto-Dhegiha *hpą́xe ~ *hpą́xi

Omaha-Ponca paⁿḣe , †ppą́xe ‘Jerusalem artichoke’ MRG:95 , p̣áⁿxi , †ppą́xi ‘parsnips’

Kanza/Kaw ppą́xe ‘small gourd’ RR

Osage p̣oⁿ´xe , †hpą́xe ‘artichoke’ LF:129b

General comment

Quapaw ppǫhickory nut’, q.v. may be related and may indicate that ‘Jerusalem artichoke’ is historically bimorphemic. This is one of several Siouan terms in which -i seems to vary with the far more common ending, -e (Lakota -a) in several languages (cf. ‘hard (1)’). Where the variation is found, -i is normally the obvious reconstruction. Here the picture is clouded by the presence of -e in DH, Chiwere and Mandan. It appears that these forms have moved from a less-productive to a more-productive stem class.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources