hard (1)

verb perceptual_tactile


Proto-Siouan *sá•ki


Crow tatáči ‘hard’ [daC- +______ ?] RG, GG:57 , daštačí ‘heavy’ GG:42


Mandan sak, rá- ‘to dry by heating’ H , sákoʔš ‘it’s dry, hard’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *sá•ki

Proto-Dakota *sáka

Lakota sáka ‘hard’ RTC

Dakota sáka ‘raw, uncooked; hard, dried’ PAS, SRR:430

Sioux Valley sáka PAS

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *sá•ki

Chiwere tha-´ke , †θáke ‘hard, unripe’ JODv

Hoocąk sáak ‘be dried, hard; dry’ KM:2785 , saak ‘hard’ JWE , saagí

Proto-Dhegiha *sá•ki ~ *sa•kí

Omaha-Ponca sagí, sági , †sagi ‘hard’ , naságe , †sagi ‘baked hard’

Kanza/Kaw sa•gí ‘hard, firm, tight’ RR , sage, dá- ‘harden by heating, wood, skin, etc.’ RR , sage, gadá- ‘harden in the wind, as meat’

Osage çági , †sáki ‘firm, solid, lasting, hard, tough’ LF:29a

Quapaw sagí ‘hard, firm’ RR , sáki, di- ‘hard, moulded with the hands’ RR



Biloxi ísâháni, saⁿháⁿ , †isahą́(-nį) ‘strong, hard’ D&S:251b

General comment

Cf. ‘raw’, especially Dakota. Biloxi may fit better with ‘brave (1)’, q.v.

The final vowel is *-i in Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere/Proto-Dhegiha, the ablauting vowel in Lakota/Mandan. Here we reconstruct *-i because the ablauting class is productive, *-i not.

However, cf. ‘hard > cane, walking stick’. Cf. Shawnee θaki (C.F. Voegelin, personal notes on Shawnee/Siouan, especially Tutelo loans, MS.). This Algonquian form could explain some of the variability in the DH accent and final vowels where one seldom finds such problems. Voegelin’s note is in pencil and contains no explanation. This root is translated ‘get hold of, secure, fasten’ in Voegelin 1939:320. He gives a Miami variant sak-, and the root appears to have a good Algonquian pedigree (v. Aubin 1975:137 #1939 ff.).

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources