arrive there vertitive

verb physical_motion


Proto-Siouan *ki-hí


Hidatsa k(h)E ‘arrive back, here or there’ J

Pre-Mandan *kihi

Mandan ‘to arrive back there’ H:72

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *kVhí

Proto-Dakota *khí

Lakota khí ‘arrive back there at home’ RTC, EB:298a

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *kí•

Chiwere ‘arrive going back’ JGT:19

Hoocąk gíi ‘arrive returning there’ KM:349 , gii

Proto-Dhegiha *khí RR

Omaha-Ponca khí PG:68

Kanza/Kaw khí ‘return home’ RR

Osage kshi , †khi ‘reach home’ LF:90a

Quapaw khí RR



Biloxi kiⁿhiⁿ , †kįhį D&S:197a

General comment

Proto-Siouan *ki- ‘vertitive’ with arrive there’. Hidatsa kh reflects the recent loss of the vowel, since inherited aspirates deaspirate in Hidatsa. Thus ki vertitive has retained its vowel into relatively modern times. In Hidatsa this verb has been reanalyzed as ablauting. The correspondence of Proto-Dhegiha *kh and Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *g confirms that Proto-Mississipi-Valley had *kVh.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources