ahead (2)



Proto-Siouan *-hto


Hidatsa i•túka• ‘front of a group or series’ J , i•túka•ru ‘in front of sth.’ J , i•túkaha• ‘by way of the front’ J , i•túhta• ‘forward; in the future’ J , i•túxa• ‘further forward’ J

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *hto(•)


Lakota toká ‘at the first’ [cont. of tokapa] EB:494b , tokáhe ‘the first, the beginning, go ahead’ EB:494b , tokáb ‘before’ EB:494b , tokápa ‘the first, first born, eldest’ EB:495b , tokápatąhą ‘ahead, before’ EB:495b , toką́ltąhą ‘from another source, place or person’ EB:495b , tokáta ‘in the future, in future, yet to dome; the future’ EB:496a , tokátayab ‘ahead, future’ EB:496a , itókehą ‘at the first, formerly’ EB:241 , itókʔehą ‘formerly, of old’ EB:242 , tokéya ‘the first, in opposition to others following’ EB:497b

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *thó•-

Chiwere t’óle , †thóle ‘before, in front of, ahead, first, chief’ GM

Hoocąk coowé ‘front part’ KM:270 , coowe ‘up ahead, in front; in the future’ KM:271 , coowéja ‘walk ahead, lead’ KM:261 , cooweeja , čoonį́ , coonį


Quapaw ettóha ‘ahead, in front, in advance’ RR

General comment

Crow ishóochi ‘front’ GG-85 seems to reflect an earlier *itó•ki or *icó•ki. Hidatsa išó•ki ‘front of a unity’ may represent a different spirant grade of the latter or perhaps a borrowing from Crow. Note that these problematic forms show a long vowel comparable to that in Hoocąk. The short vowel of Hidatsa i•tu- is unexplained. The initial i- in many of these forms may be i- ‘locative’ which, at least in DH, usually carries the meaning ‘toward’. It contrasts with i- ‘instrumental’.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources