2nd singular actor, syncope product (allomorph)

pronoun n/a


Proto-Siouan *š-

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *š ~ *ž-

Proto-Dakota *š-

Dakota š- [with verb ku. Generally *š-> 0 (as prn.)]

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *š-

Chiwere š- RR

Hoocąk š-, šV [where V is Dorsey’s Law product] AS:69, WL:23 , š-, šV-

Proto-Dhegiha *š- /__*r-, *h-, *p-, *t-, *k- , *ž- /__ *ʔ-, *w- RR

Omaha-Ponca š- ~ ž- ~ h-

Kanza/Kaw š- ~ ž- ~ h-

Osage š- ~ ž- ~ h- ~ -0/

Quapaw š- ~ ž- ~ h- ~ -0/ [h > t]

Proto-Southeastern *š- ~ *i-


Biloxi i- ‘you go’ , i-da , ž- in: joⁿ from oⁿ , †ž- ‘make, do’

Ofo š- D&S:330, JSS , c- ~ ch-


Tutelo yi- ‘you come’ [*y > *š / __C as elsewhere ą or *y > *i / __C in OVS?]


Catawba č- FS

General comment

From Biloxi and Tutelo it appears that *y- may either obstruentize to *š- ~ *ž- or vocalize to *i-. The latter is more likely an analogical development from independent pronouns. 1st sg. actor prefixes in mi- in late (20th century) transcriptions of Tutelo suggest that this may be the case generally. Cf. independent forms in Tutelo. The reflex of Proto-Siouan *y- < **ya- ‘2act’ was probably *š- before stems beginning with *r-, *h-, *ʔ-, *w-, *p-, *t-, *k- in Proto-DH, then *š- > *ž- replacing root-initial and *w-. It is, however, possible to start with , as a more natural development of *y, and derive š. In Omaha-Ponca *š > h /__*r generally. *šr > *šn > hn in Omaha-Ponca and Kanza/Kaw.

*šr can become št in Osage and Quapaw, and *št > *ht > tt in Quapaw.

Second person prefix development in DH is a bit messy here but essentially regular.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources