1st singular patient (1)

pronoun n/a


Proto-Siouan *wą


Mandan wą- ‘1st person stative’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *wą-


Lakota ma- RTC

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *hį́•- (?)


Hoocąk hįį- (?) WL:22 , hį- AS:104 , , hį- , , hį-

Proto-Dhegiha *ą-

Omaha-Ponca ą-

Kanza/Kaw ą-

Osage ą-

Quapaw ą-

General comment

The more pervasive pronominal is ‘1st singular patient (2) (clitic)’, q.v., and it is entirely possible that this represents a replacement for Proto-Siouan *wį- that diffused to Mandan from areas in MVS where it was innovated by nasalizing the 1agt pronominal, *wa-. JEK suggests that Hoocąk and Chiwere forms match the Omaha-Ponca dative paradigm form į- and may be taken from an older dative paradigm. Typologically, accusative markers frequently develop from dative markers, but this does not normally apply to pronominals. In any event, the Chiwere/Hoocąk cases are certainly aberrant and there is widespread homophony between these forms, those of the inclusive person and several possessive prefixes. The semantics of the changes would have to be explained in a satisfactory fashion in order for this scenario to be taken at face value. At the moment it seems equally likely that the Chiwere/Hoocąk forms are really cognate with ‘1st singular patient (2) (clitic)’ (where we have cross listed them) and have replaced the pronominal-initial w- with the usual h-.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources