stink (1)

noun perceptual_olfactory



Proto-Mississipi-Valley *kwų́ze (?)

Proto-Dakota *kmų́za

Lakota gmų́za ‘strong or fishy smell’ EB:162a

Dakota hmuŋ´za , †hmų́za ‘slimy, fish-like, smelling strong, like spoiled meat’ SRR:150b


Hoocąk čųwų́s ‘fishy smell or taste’ KM:288 , cųwųs

Proto-Dhegiha *krǫ́ze

Kanza/Kaw lǫ́ze, lóze ‘smell of food or smoke’ JOD

Osage gthóⁿçe , †lą́ze ‘smell of spoiled food’ LF:55b



Biloxi yaⁿsí , †yąsí ‘having a fishy odor’ D&S:290b


Tutelo wihóoq gupsuá , †kupsuá ‘fishy smell’ HW

General comment

Cf. ‘cat’ for correspondences. Cf. also ‘stink (3)’. While it is possible that these, primarily MVS, kw clusters may turn out to have Proto-Siouan sources, they do not occur in really basic vocabulary, and it seems much more likely that they represent early borrowings. the Tutelo analog is clearly related historically in some way, but it has undergone irregular syncope or metathesis, showing that it is not a cognate in the accepted sense of the word. It may represent a borrowing from a different but related language or adoption at a different time. Biloxi may have been contaminated from yaⁿxí ‘strong odor’. The dissimilation product should be n rather than y, but the semantic match is so exact that the Biloxi word must be related to this term in some way. All of the forms taken together suggest something like kuwųsa, kumusa, kumuswa or the like, but we do not suggest them as Proto-Siouan reconstructions, rather they may represent a shape to search for in a potential source language.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources