standing, inanim. classifier

verb n/a


Proto-Siouan *rahÉ


Hidatsa nahí , †rahÉ ‘stand’ J

Pre-Mandan *te < **rhe

Mandan te ‘it’s there, stands there, exists’ H:246 , EK , téʔš RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *rhe

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *te•

Chiwere ǰe ‘in a standing position’ JGT:241

Hoocąk ǰee ‘distal st. positional’ , jee JEK, WL , ǰe , jee

Proto-Dhegiha *the

Omaha-Ponca the ‘standing, inan. classifier’ RR

Kanza/Kaw čhe ‘standing, inan. classifier’ RR

Osage che ‘standing, inan. classifier’ RR

Quapaw the ‘standing, inan. classifier’ RR


Proto-Biloxi-Ofo *rhe

Biloxi ne, nĕ, nédi , †ne ‘standing an. or inan.’, ‘this’

Ofo akạléwa , †akəléwa ‘stand up’ D&S:319a

General comment

The expected initial syllable syncope explains most of the cognates here. DH aspirated stops seem clearly to be a secondary development from syncope. Biloxi n before an oral vowel reflects the earlier *rh cluster. The same explanation may account for Ofo l for expected t. In Mandan, the development of underlying rh to surface t is explained by Hollow, p. 42. Synchronically, Lakota he has become connected to , cf. ‘standing, continue, standing positional’. Tutelo ‘stand, trans.; lean, trans.’ is probably related.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources