standing, continue, standing positional

verb physical_somatic_posture


Proto-Siouan *hą́(-kE)

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *háhku

Crow áahku ‘remain’ RG

Hidatsa háhku ‘remain’ J

Pre-Mandan *hąk-

Mandan hąk ‘in a standing position’ H:65

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *r-hą

Proto-Dakota *(r)hą

Lakota ‘stand upright’ EB:165b

Dakota haŋ , †hą ‘stand, stand upright or on end; remain’ SRR:123a

Stoney [+ablaut] PAS

Sioux Valley [+ablaut] PAS


Hoocąk ǰą ‘nearby standing position’ WL ,

Proto-Dhegiha *thą

Omaha-Ponca thą ‘standing animate def. art. and continuative aux.’ RR

Kanza/Kaw khą ‘standing animate def. art. and continuative aux.’ RR

Osage thą ‘standing animate def. art. and continuative aux.’ RR

Quapaw thą ‘standing animate def. art. and continuative aux.’ RR

Proto-Southeastern *hą-


Biloxi hánde , †hą́de ‘be (sign of continuous or incomplete action)’ D&S:193b


Tutelo -heⁿg , †-hąk LJF , -hęk , †-hąk ES

General comment

In Chiwere and Hoocąk Proto-Siouan *hąkestanding, continue, standing positional’ and *wųkelie, be lying, positional’ have fallen together with loss of *#w- and replacement with #h-, cf. the 1st person pronoun prefixes. *hąke has apparently yielded doublets in DH, the classificatory auxiliary and definite article t-hą on the one hand and DH forms using the root -hą with the meaning ‘raise’ or ‘rise’ on the other: Omaha-Ponca ðihą́ ‘raise’ RR; Kanza/Kaw dahą́ ‘rise, of bread’ RR; Osage tahą́ , dahóⁿ ‘rise, of bread’ LF-320b. In Hidatsa the continuatives are wahku, rahku, hahku. On the development of wahku, rahku, cf. ‘lie, be lying, positional’. An inherited *hą + kE has presumably been reshaped to fit the sitting/lying pattern with preaspirated -hku. Also in Hidatsa, the plural stem for all three positionals is ahku, with which compare the Crow form. Tutelo and Mandan show the *kE suffix.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources